Z Alternsforsch. 1989 Jan-Feb;44(1):37-48.

[Increasing mental performance by multistep oxygen therapy. Computer-assisted measurements of information processing capacity, intelligence, short-term memory and further parameters of cerebral performance].

[Article in German]

von Ardenne M1, Klemm W.

Author information


Several basic characteristics of mental capacity were measured on 59 patients by means of computer-based-methods before and after oxygen multistep therapy (O2-MT) and compared with the results obtained from 14 volunteers serving as controls. Before and without O2-MT, an appreciable, age-dependent decline of the short-term memory capacity (general fluid intelligence) was found. O2-MT, completed by brain jogging, effected a significant increase in the presence duration by 0.4-0.7 secs, in the information flow by 1.4-1.9 bit/sec, resulting in an increase in the short-term memory capacity by 19-23% (in two experimental groups). The short-term memory itself was, however, not improved as compared to the controls. Moreover, the times needed for the accomplishment of perception, interference and reaction tests became significantly shorter by 12-18%. By using the screening test for cerebral insufficiency (CI), which is based on these parameters, the suspicion of CI could be excluded in 18 of 59 patients.

PMID: 2711706 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]


Z Alternsforsch. 1984 Jul-Aug;39(4):187-210.

[Age-dependence of oxygen transport into body tissues and the favorable modification of this transport by multistep oxygen therapy].

[Article in German]von Ardenne M.Abstract

The routine determination of the oxygen flux into body’s tissues (= resting oxygen uptake) should gain more attention in practice, because its magnitude can be considered a kind of characteristic value for the energetic state of the entire organism. The determination of this value has deserved special interest since we discouvered a “switch mechanism” of blood microcirculation, which depends on the oxygen state of the body. A high value of pO2 (greater than or equal to 50 mm of Hg) at the venous ends of the capillaries, attainable by the procedures of the Oxygen Multistep Therapy and by powerful physical exercise as well, results in an increase of the blood microcirculation and, consequently, in a permanent elevation of the oxygen influx and uptake, respectively. This effect can persist for weeks, months or even years. If the oxygen state gets worse and declines below a certain threshold, e. g. in progressing age or after long-term distress, the cross sections of the capillaries shrink by swelling of the endothelial cells, and the blood microcirculation is diminished for an extended period of time. The utilization of the above-mentioned switch mechanism for permanent improvement of the oxygen flux into all the tissues of the organism is therefore of decisive importance for fighting against the common cause of many diseases, disorders and complaints going often along with increasing age due to insufficient oxygen (energy) supply for general metabolism. As can be taken from measurements described in this paper, the main contribution to this deterioraction comes from the age-dependent diminution of the cardiac minute or stroke volume, respectively, since eta–the percent exhaustion of the oxygen-binding capacity of blood–increases even with progressing age, as was found by us. Numerous determinations of the arterial and venous pO2 resting levels have shown that the values of eta can almost be doubled easily by the procedures of the Oxygen Multistep Therapy, whereby–as a rule–the age-dependent decrease of the cardiac output is overcompensated. Within the schedule of the Oxygen Multistep Therapy, the third step prescribes a temporary enhancement of the blood circulation by physical exercise. With respect to this measure, there was made progress of principal importance by the idea to increase the minute volume by application of sympathicomimetics during the single treatment units under moderately enhanced oxygen inhalation, but with due consideration of the known contraindications.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)
PMID: 6475110 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

Z Gesamte Inn Med. 1986 Feb 15;41(4):85-91.

[Control and usefulness of a capillary-wall switch mechanism in blood microcirculation. Recent results of oxygen multistep therapy research].

[Article in German]

von Ardenne M.


The measurement of the O2 status of the human organism, the knowledge of factors which influence it and the using and development, respectively, of measures for its permanent improvement are of great importance for the prevention diagnosis, prophylaxis and therapy. The O2-intake in rest of the organism is regarded as absolute characteristic of the oxygen status. In investigations of the dynamics of the status it is in most cases sufficient to use the arteriovenous Hb-O2 saturation difference as relative distinctive mark, the representative determination of which from routine measurements of pO2 in rest is discussed. From such measurements the strong dynamics of the O2 status was found. Apart from the deterioration with growing age the deterioration by stressor influences of different kind, in hyposthenias and the minima in the 24-hour-cycle were established. Improvements were measured after perseverance training and after treatments with processes of the oxygen multistep therapy. After discussion of the three basic steps of this therapy the 36-h-O2-multistep process and the 15-min-O2-multistep rapid process are mentioned as standard variants which are to be used ambulatorily. The rapid process is entered more in detail and the practice of its performance as well as the results of measurements of the typical pO2 in rest before and after these processes are discussed. Surprising is the existence of the increase effected of the arterial pO2 in rest and of the decrease of the venous pO2 in rest for weeks, months up to years.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

PMID: 3705655 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]